/ Geral / A dependência química é uma doença ?
Data: 22/05/2018 ás 14:35

A dependência química é uma doença ?

Considerado um transtorno mental, além de um problema social pela Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS), a dependência química é tida como doença crônica, que comumente atinge indivíduos que fazem o uso constante de determinadas drogas. O portador desse tipo de distúrbio acaba por não conseguir conter o vício, afetando sua vida psíquica, emocional, física e, consequentemente, a vida social.

As substâncias que atuam no Sistema Nervoso Central, alterando a forma de o indivíduo pensar, agir ou sentir são denominadas drogas psicoativas. Sendo conhecida e usada desde o início das civilizações, em rituais religiosos ou como fonte de prazer, substâncias como a maconha, cocaína e o álcool ainda são comuns nos dias atuais. Tendem a causar um desequilíbrio no metabolismo químico do organismo, levando a dependência química da droga.

A motivação pelo uso engloba diversos fatores – de simples curiosidade a uma busca imediata de prazer ou alívio de sintomas, contudo, a maioria desconhece ou desacredita no potencial dessas drogas em causar a dependência.

A dependência a uma droga é caracterizada pelo descontrole do indivíduo no uso da substância, que aos poucos o desintegra da sociedade. Fatores relacionados à própria droga, até uma predisposição genética e doenças psiquiátricas pré-existentes, podem levar algumas pessoas a um quadro de dependência. Com o objetivo de sentir novamente os sintomas de prazer, ou ainda, para eliminar o mal-estar que se sente quando há a interrupção da droga, o indivíduo tende a repetir o uso daquela substância. Os sintomas de desconforto são designados "Síndrome da Abstinência", que tendem a surgir a cada vez que o indivíduo cessar o uso da droga. A “tolerância à droga” leva ao consumo de doses cada vez maiores, no intuito de obter os mesmos sintomas promovidos em doses que antes eram menores. Outro fator associado à dependência química é a fissura, caracterizada pela vontade incontrolável de fazer o uso da droga, a qualquer hora do dia ou noite.

Uma vez que se torna um dependente químico, será permanentemente um dependente. Acontece que a doença apresenta caráter crônico, incurável e progressivo. Assim, como não há cura para a dependência química, o indivíduo irá necessitar de tratamento constante, independentemente de estar fazendo o uso ou não da droga.

Esta doença merece toda a atenção, por desprender o indivíduo da sociedade, podendo ocasionar o óbito. Por acometer toda a família, que adoece emocionalmente junto ao indivíduo, esta também deve receber orientações e apoio.


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